A Brief Overview of the Hindi Language History
Although much national business is conducted in English and the other languages recognized by the Indian constitution, Hindi Language is the chosen official language of India.
Sanskrit has had a profound impact on literary Hindi, which is written in the Devanagari alphabet. However, these so-called Hindi dialects are more appropriately classified as regional languages of the “Hindi zone” or “belt,” an area that roughly corresponds to northern India and extends south into Madhya Pradesh.
The degree to which regional languages resemble mainstream Hindi varies greatly throughout this zone. Maithili, the Hindi belt’s easternmost regional language, has greater historical affinities with Bengali than with mainstream Hindi Language.
Similarly, Rajasthani, the belt’s westernmost language, resembles Gujarati in certain ways more than standard Hindi. They remark, among other things, that the British lumped these languages with Hindi in an attempt to categorise languages during the early days of British control. Furthermore, at the primary school level, Hindi (rather than one of the regional languages) was chosen as the medium of teaching.
Because the use of these regional languages or dialects in public places—that is, beyond the circle of family and Hindi Language close friends—is viewed as a sign of weak education, individuals of the urban middle class and educated villages throughout the zone profess to be speakers of Hindi.
In other words, knowing standard Hindi in this region confers the same level of social prestige as speaking English in the south; both languages are seen as languages of upward social mobility. As a result, persons looking for new employment, weddings, and other similar situations must communicate in standard Hindi Language.
Young people nowadays often have just a rudimentary understanding of regional languages. The proliferation of mass media (radio, television, and cinema) and rising literacy have resulted in a rise in the number of native speakers of standard Hindi, particularly since the 1950s.
There are occasional calls for the creation of independent states for speakers of one or more regional languages. Such requests are usually met by counter-demands for recognition of the different varieties of that regional Hindi Language.
Grammar in Hindi Language
Sanskrit, Prakrit, and Apabhramsha, the forerunners of Hindi, are nominally and linguistically inflected languages. The adjective agrees in number and gender with the noun it qualifies in the nominal world. This is less true in Hindi, which was heavily influenced by Persian, in which the adjective does not change when the noun’s number changes.
Instead, Hindi uses postpositions, which are tiny words that occur after nouns and act similarly to English prepositions Hindi Language. Other Sanskrit-based languages, such as Gujarati and Marathi, have preserved the neuter gender, whereas Hindi has decreased the number of genders to two (masculine and feminine).
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The Hindi system of case marking was similarly simplified as a result of Persian influence, reducing it to two forms: direct and oblique.Hindi’s verbal inflection is also simpler than those of the Hindi zone’s regional languages. In Hindi, only the present and future indicative forms are completely conjugated, while the other tenses are conveyed via perfective and imperfective participles and auxiliary verbs Hindi Language.
Vocabulary in Hindi Language
Early speakers of Khari Boli interacted with Muslim invaders from Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Central Asia, and elsewhere, resulting in modern standard Hindi. Words like dalil, faisla, and gavahi, which mean ‘argue,’ ‘judge,’ and ‘witness,’ have been entirely absorbed and are rarely recognised as loanwords.
Persian names for clothing and bedding (e.g., pyjama, chador), food (e.g., korma, kabab), cosmetics (e.g., sabun’soap,’ hina ‘henna,’ furniture (e.g., kursi ‘chair,’ mez ‘table,’ building (e.g., divar ‘wall,’ kursi ‘plinth’), Hindi Language as well as a wide variety of other things and concepts, have become so ingrained in the Hindi language that post-independence purists have been unable to eradicate them.
The sounds /g/ and /x/ were replaced by /k/ and /kh/ in most situations. Hindi has benefited from exposure to the English language. Many English terms have been entirely integrated into the Hindi vernacular, including button, pencil, fuel, and college.
Syntax in Hindi Language
The related clause was formerly put at the beginning or conclusion of the main clause in Hindi Language. For example, wo larka mera dosht hai jo kal yaha aya tha might be rendered in numerous ways: wo larka mera dosht hai jo kal yaha aya, jo larka kal yaha aya tha, wo mera dosht hai; or wo larka jo kal yaha aya tha, mera dosht hai.
Hindi syntax was impacted by English after colonialism, although only to a limited extent. For example, until the mid-nineteenth century, Hindi had no form for indirect narration—one might say Ram ne kaha, mein nahi aaoonga (Ram said, “I won’t come”) in Hindi Language. Now you may say Ram ne kaha ki wo nahi ayega, which means ‘Ram said he won’t arrive.’
The usage of Hindi on national television boosted the use of a linguistic trick known as code switching, in which the speaker constructs sentence by combining a Hindi term with an English phrase, as in I informed him that mai bimar hu ‘I told him that I am unwell.’ Hindi Language mechanism is distinct from code mixing, which combines phrases from other languages: usne ill leave ki application de hai ‘he has applied for sick leave.
Standardization in Hindi Language
Sumit Kumar Chatterjee, a linguist, completed research in Calcutta (now Kolkata) in 1931, outlining the use of a lingua franca he dubbed Bazaar Hindustani. It was used by both Europeans and Indians who spoke languages like Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Tamil, and Hindi Language since it had minimal grammatical structures and a reduced core vocabulary.
In the early twenty-first century, what became known simply as Hindustani—a colloquial spoken language that draws heavily from Hindi and Sanskrit or Urdu and Persian, depending on geographic location—remained the lingua franca of Kolkata and other cosmopolitan and industrial cities that had drawn people from all over India Hindi Language.
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Official language of India: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_India
Westernmost language: https://linguistics.stackexchange.com/questions/15371/what-were-the-westernmost-and-easternmost-indo-european-languages-in-c-1350-ce
Standard Hindi Language: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi
Influenced by Persian: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Persian_culture
Perfective and imperfective participles: https://hindilanguage.info/hindi-grammar/verbals/participles/imperfective-participles/#:~:text=Imperfective%20participles%20are%20formed%20simply,%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%20to%20a%20verb%20stem.&text=Imperfective%20participles%20are%20often%20reinforced,gender%2C%20number%2C%20and%20case.