What do you mean by Computational Fluid Dynamics ( CFD ) ?
Computational Fluid Dynamics is a mathematical process of modelling of a physical phenomenon that involves flow of a fluid and also includes solving it numerically by applying computational prowess.
Whenever a task is given to the engineering to design a new product, let’s say, a race car for the next grand race championship, then one thing that plays a great and a major role in it is aerodynamics.
Processes that are involved in aerodynamics are not easily quantifiable during the phase of the conceptualization. The best way for the engineer to recognise and optimize its design is to try and test it in the physical format with different prototypes for the same product. Now, in this advanced world in which new technologies are coming everyday, the use of computational power and fluid dynamics has increased a lot over the last few years. Nowadays, it is a common tool for the generation of new solutions for the fluid flows either with solid interaction or not.
In CFD software analysis, an examination of flow of fluid which is related with fluid flow with its physical properties like velocity, viscosity, temperature, pressure is conducted. Usually a mathematical model of the cases that are in physical format is used in the CFD software so as to analyze the flow of the fluid.
Now, let us look up at the history of computational fluid dynamics.
History of CFD :
If we break down the history into years so as to understand it better then,
- Till 1910, Some improvements were done in the mathematical and in numerical methods.
- Between 1910-1940, To generate numerical calculations that were based on hand calculations, integration of methods as well as models was done.
- From 1940-50, Transition was made to computer based calculations.
- From 1950-60, Initial study was done by using computers so as to model the fluid flow that is based on the Navier-Stokes equations.
- 1960-70, between this year the very first scientific paper named calculation of potential flow about arbitrary bodies was published. It was related to the analysis of computers in 3D.
- 1970-80,between this year codes were generated by Boeing, NASA and different organisations and they also started to use these codes to yield ships, submarines, automobiles, aircraft etc.
- Presently, Many developments are being made in this sector.
There are some equations in this process which are known as governing equations, they are :
Governing Equations of CFD :
There are three main governing equations :
- Equation for conservation of mass i.e. continuity equation.
- Equation for conservation of momentum i.e. 2nd law of Newton.
- And third, Equation for conservation of energy i.e. Energy equation or also known as First Law Of Thermodynamics.
Now, let us consider describing more things like Mesh Convergence.
What is Mesh Convergence ?
Well, messing is a process in which discretization of domain to tiny cells is done so as to apply the mathematical formulas or models that are at linearity depending on each and every cell. According to the requirement, finer meshes are required in the areas where physical properties are predicted. There are some restrictions also, and can be sorted as :
- First, generating a mesh structure that specifically includes a satisfactory number of elements so as to assure the quality of the CAD model.
- Regeneration of mesh structures with more elements. Let us consider an example, consider a case in which there is a situation of examination of internal flow, comparing pressure drops will be a critical process to conduct.
Now, let us discuss convergence :
It is considered as a great and a major issue in the field of computational analysis. Liquid movement is a non linear movement and has non-linear and complex mathematical models like phase change, turbulence, mass transfer, as well as convergence.
Convergence can be diversified as follows :
- Convergence can be accelerated by initial conditions, Courant number and also under – relaxation.
- It is stabilized by different methods such as mesh refinement, reasonable mesh quality, etc.
- It need not always have to be right all the time, solutions related to problems can converge.
- It ensures that the solution is repeatable so as to refrain from ambiguity.
Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics :
Some of the important applications of CFD in engineering are :
- Laminar and turbulent flow
- Compressible and Incompressible flow
- Mass and Thermal Transport
CFD Services :
There are many companies that are providing different CFD services.
- SimScale :
It is a reputed company providing all the CFD applications and works. It provides its clients a cloud – based CFD software that allows a wide scale of services related to all the above discussed applications.
- Siemens :
It is also a reputed company providing all the applicable services related to CFD software and software management, if you want to visit its website then you are just a click away :
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