One of the most essential ideas in translation is equivalence translation, which is generally the ideal place to start when describing the process of language translation.
Language translation is frequently referred to as the “science of poetry.” I admit that I am the only one on the planet who refers to it in this manner; it’s my creation, and I am probably overly fond of it.
However, I believe that is correct; whether there is an artistic or poetic aim or not, language is poetry: Words are magical, and they are used to explain equivalence translationand record our environment and modify it.
After all, simply writing or speaking about some part of the world transforms it. It’s similar to the concept in physics that just viewing something changes its nature; similarly, using words to describe something changes its character.
Maybe that’s going a bit too far, but it gets me to my main argument: the role of equivalency in translation.
Because it’s a powerful notion that’s reasonably straightforward to describe and a robust approach in translation workequivalence translation, I frequently utilize equivalent when discussing my work in translation services to those who don’t have any training or expertise in linguistics or translation.
<h2>Both encoding and decoding in Translation Equivalence</h2>
Equivalence is a simple concept to grasp. There are two sets of language to consider when it comes to translation: Your source language and the destination language into which you’re translating. That’s self-evident.
However, many people believe that languages are all essentially the same – that all you have to do is swap words from one vocabulary for words from another and then clean up the grammarequivalence translation. It’s a lot trickier than that. Languages reflect the culture, history, and thought process of the people who created them, and this varies significantly between cultures.
You can’t always substitute words since you’ll wind up with a word salad. A simple method to observe an example of this is to use Internet-based or other automatic translation programs. A human brain must decode what a word or phrase in a sentence means, based on context and cultural knowledge, and then look for the appropriate encoding in the target languageequivalence translation.
That isn’t to say that concepts aren’t interchangeable between languages or cultures; they are. Equivalence occurs when a word or phrase implies the same thing in both languages, and it’s unsurprisingly one of the first things experienced translators check for.
This necessitates a thorough knowledge of both cultures, not simply the language. You may be competent in both languages, but if you don’t comprehend the idiom and culture that surrounds them, your translations will be, put it bluntly, wrongequivalence translation.
A literal translation is meaningless; you need to know what the words signify. Equivalence is a vital tool for achieving that aim, but only if you have a thorough grasp of the process.
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The idea of equivalence between a translation and the original language text is complex. There are three significant reasons why achieving a perfect equivalent or impact is challenging. For starters, even for the same individual on two times (Hervey, Higgins, and Haywood), it is difficult for a text to have consistent meanings equivalence translation(1995: 14). According to these experts on translation:
Before one could objectively examine textual effects, one would need to have access to a very complete and accurate theory of psychological impact, an approach capable of, among other things, predicting the effects of different texts, of describing the aesthetic experiences that are typically the most important in reaction to a book (Hervey, Higgins, and Haywood) (1995: 14).
Second, translation is a subjective interpretation of the source language material by translatorsequivalence translation. As a result, they are expecting the target text readers to have the same objective impact as the source text readers is an unreasonable assumption.
Third, translators may not establish how audiences reacted to the source work when it was first published (ibid, p. 14). Miao (2000) presents a concrete illustration of the equivalence relation’s impossibility:
<h2>Efforts to resolve Translation Equivalence issues</h2>
As previously stated, equivalency issues arise at numerous levels, ranging from the word to the textual level, due to semantic, socio-cultural, and grammatical variations between the source and destination languagesequivalence translation. These three areas of equivalency issues are inextricably linked.
The meaning(s) of a word is culturally determined, and in most circumstances, the purpose (s) of a word can only be deduced from the context in which it is used. Therefore, the loss and addition of information in the translation are unavoidable due to semantic, socio-cultural, and grammatical variations between the source and destination languages.
According to Basnett-McGuire (1991), once the premise of non-identity between the two languages is established, the subject of loss and gain in the equivalence translation process may be addressed (p.30). It is possible to add information to the target language text not included in the source-language text.
Newmark (1988: 91) claims that materially contributed to the translation is usually cultural (to account for variations in SL and TL culture), technical (related to the topic), or linguistic (explaining wayward use of words).
The extra information can be included in the text (by placing it in brackets) or left out (i.e., by using a footnote or annotation). Such knowledge is viewed as a supplement to explaining culture-specific ideas (Baker, 1992) and is a requirement for understandingequivalence translation.
The name marhusip, for example, comes from the Batak Tapanuli language (the original language of the Batak population in North Sumatra). It means “to whisper.” However, when the word marhusip is employed in the context of a community’s discussion of marriage, it means more than ‘to whisper.’
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